eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This study examined mathematical self-concept of college students and how it may develop differently between men and women. The study used data from a 1985 Cooperative Institutional Research Programs Survey and a follow-up survey in 1989 which included information from over 27,000 college freshmen and incorporates information acquired directly from institutions. The sample for the study was limited to 15,050 students attending 192 four-year colleges and universities. The data were analyzed in terms of characteristics at entry to college, intended choice of major, characteristics of the college environment, and college experiences. The dependent variable was students’ self-rating of their mathematical ability. Findings indicated that women are less confident than men about their mathematical abilities and that this disparity increases during the college years and is in large… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: While previous research has outlined factors that can be used to predict academic self-concept among college students, much of this research pays little attention to how self-concept develops differently for unique subgroups of students. This paper examines the development of mathematical self-concept during college for four groups of students who entered college with significantly different levels of math confidence: (1) men in math-intensive majors; (2) women in math-intensive majors; (3) men in non-math-intensive majors; and (4) women in non-math-intensive majors. Data are examined from surveys of over 14,000 college freshmen at 191 institutions who were followed up 4 years after college entry. Regression analyses describe how the factors contributing to the development of math self-concept differentiate among the four groups and suggest how women who persist in… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Two limited studies are reported: (1) a pilot test of sex differences in high school math preparation, and (2) a pilot study of attitudes toward mathematics. The first was a random sample of 81 college applicants (42 boys, 39 girls) which showed that 57 percent of the boys took four years of high school mathematics compared to 8 percent of the girls. The second study summarizes responses on a questionnaire distributed to 38 upper division social science students. Results showed a statistically significant relationship between social support from teachers, parents, and peers and the pursuit of advanced mathematics courses in high school, and between social support and performance. Responses to the survey question of factors influencing student interest and aptitude for mathematics are included. (DT) Link til… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This survey of 316 Precalculus, Calculus AB, and Calculus BC students from markedly different socioeconomic levels in four district high schools in San Antonio, Texas, looked at factors that have traditionally caused women to avoid mathematics, and attempted to discover which of them continue to influence women’s decisions to reject the discipline. The questionnaire contained 25 questions based on assumptions drawn from literature on the subject. Reported and discussed are all differences in gender opinion above 9 percentage points, even though a difference of 11.4 percentage points would begin to indicate a statistically significant result. Findings where such differences occur showed that: (1) mathematics enrollment favored men, especially in BC Calculus; (2) female respondents more frequently perceived no bias in teacher expectations; (3) female students less frequently… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Females’ underperformance in mathematics is discussed as a function of negative expectancies by parents, teachers, and peers. These negative expectancies of significant others lead to negative self-expectancies and negative attitudes about mathematics on the part of female students. These negative expectancies and attitudes lead to lower performance, reinforcing parents’ and teachers’ negative expectancies. Thus a cycle of low expectancies leading to low performance leading to even lower expectancies is perpetuated. Some reasons this cycle persists are: (1) girls, more than boys, tend to believe that mathematical ability is something individuals either have or do not have; (2) girls are more math anxious than boys; (3) girls may believe that “girls just cannot do math”; (4) girls’ belief that their ability is so low that no amount of… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This digest addresses the issue of sex differences in mathematics achievement in K-12 students. The problem is discussed in three sections. The first section examines the progress that has been made in narrowing the gap between girls’ and boys’ achievement in mathematics and the numbers of women and men who enter mathematics-related careers. Issues addressed include the failure of research to find any inherent differences in girls’ and boys’ abilities in mathematics, the underrepresentation of women in mathematics-related fields, strategies to motivate girls to take more mathematics courses, and strategies to encourage girls to consider mathematical and scientific careers. The second section offers innovative approaches in mathematics education funded by the Women’s Educational Equity Act (WEEA) Project. A list of the products mentioned in the article is… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This study compared the effects of two different special educator roles within high school algebra classes containing special needs students. The special educator served as either in-room assistant or as co-teacher. The study was conducted for one chapter of algebra study over a 3-week period. No significant differences between groups were found prior to the treatment. Following the two treatments, students in the co-teaching condition scored significantly higher in achievement than did students in the in-room assistance group or the control group. Females in the co-teaching condition achieved significantly higher scores than did females in the control group. Females receiving in-room assistance also scored significantly higher than control group females. No significant findings in achievement were found for males or for students receiving special education services. Appended… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This book comprehensively describes the Pac-TEC project which organizes educational reform around the problem statement that mathematics, science, technology, and engineering education is not inclusive of all thinking and learning styles, and therefore is not addressing the present and future needs of the expanding, evolving culture base of the United States. The Pac-TEC project has a research component consisting of interviews, classroom trials, literature, research, discussions, textbook analysis, and visits to the learning environments of classroom teachers (N=26). The teachers were chosen from elementary to university level with 15 of those teachers being members of groups that are underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The questions that guided the research phase pertained to the reasons why some students are uncomfortable with science, mathematics, engineering, and technology;… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This document is an introduction to a larger manual on the Pac-TEC project. The Pac-TEC project organizes educational reform around the problem statement that mathematics, science, technology, and engineering education is not inclusive of all thinking and learning styles, and therefore is not addressing the present and future needs of the expanding, evolving culture base of the United States. The Pac-TEC project has a research component consisting of interviews, classroom trials, literature, research, discussions, textbook analysis, and visits to the learning environments of classroom teachers (N=26). The teachers were chosen from elementary to university level and 15 of those teachers are members of groups that are underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology. The questions that guided the research phase pertained to the reasons why some students… Continue Reading →

### Like this:

Like Loading...

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Influences on sex equity in mathematics achievement are discussed in this summary of research and recommendations. Information on the following topics is presented, with each finding referenced to a source or sources in the bibliography provided at the end of the report: mathematics enrollment, influences on mathematics participation, predicting mathematics achievement, sex differences in attitudes toward mathematics and in mathematics achievement, visual/spatial skills, parents, peers and significant others, teachers, classroom environment, school structure, testing, advanced placement girls, career aspirations and educational goals, and recommendations to parents, teachers, and school personnel. Forty-four references are included in the bibliography. (MNS) Link til kilde

### Like this:

Like Loading...