eric.ed.gov har udgivet:
In a multi-tiered system of support, we often conceptualize intensive interventions as supplemental academic or behavior supports delivered to a small group of students at Tier 2 or intensive, individualized supports at Tier 3. At Tier 2, some students may not initially respond to the standard protocol of an intervention. In these situations, it may be useful to adapt or intensify components of the intervention to improve student responsiveness before moving a student to a more intensive, individualized intervention. There are some evidence-based teacher practices that can be used to intensify supports for students who struggle with academics or behavior in the context of both Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports. One evidence-based teacher practice that can be used to intensify supports for students is increasing opportunities for students to respond during classroom instruction. Opportunities to respond (OTR) are defined as behaviors that require student responses and are usually followed by feedback. Research finds several positive student outcomes associated with increased OTR including improved outcomes in reading (Skinner, Smith, & McLean,1994) and math (Skinner, Belfiore, Mace, Williams-Wilson, & Johns, 1997), improved academic engagement (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001), and decreases in disruptive behavior (Sutherland & Wehby, 2001). Further, frequent OTR allow teachers to adjust instruction based on student feedback, improve the quality of a lesson, and increase student engagement (CEC, 1987). While studies have found that increased OTR are associated with positive student outcomes, there is a gap in the literature base in terms of assessing the magnitude of effect associated with these interventions. Future research should not only assess how effective OTR are in terms of their impact on student outcomes but should also assess the relative effectiveness of different methods used to increase OTR. This practice guide answers the following questions related to these common strategies teachers can use to increase OTR: (1) For whom is it intended? (2) How does it work? (3) How adequate is the research knowledge base? (4) How practical is it? (5) How effective is it? (6) What questions remain? and (7) Where can I learn more?