eric.ed.gov har udgivet:
Within a response to intervention framework, teachers regularly base important instructional decisions on the results of formative assessments. The validity of these decisions depends, in part, upon the validity of the inference of students’ skills drawn from the formative assessment. If formative assessment items do not genuinely measure the skills they purport to measure–that is, if they are misaligned with their content standards–then the resulting inferences may be threatened. Alignment is thus critical, given the potential practical repercussions of misalignment (e.g., students denied needed interventions). In the following technical report, we report on the alignment of a randomly selected sample of roughly half the easyCBM CCSS middle school math items with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Results suggest a high degree of alignment, with 87% of all items aligning to their corresponding standard after controlling for rater effects, and 99.6% of items aligning either to a standard or a requisite skill to the standard. Appendix A presents a PowerPoint presentation from a webinar training session. Appendix B displays the results, by item, of the primary analysis used to examine the degree to which the formative middle school math items aligned with the CCSS (while controlling for rater effects). The raw observed results are displayed by item and standard in Appendix C.