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Eric.ed.gov – Professional Development Programs: Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI) and Math as Text (MAT)

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Many people feel mathematics education in the U.S. is in need of improvement. Fennema and Franke (1992) note that teachers’ knowledge (or lack thereof) is often associated with poor instruction and thus, low student achievement on instruments which measure mathematical aptitude. For this reason, universities across the country have become mathematical and pedagogical (re)-training grounds for future, novice, and even experienced teachers. Fennema et al. (1996) indicate that the object of many professional development programs is to instill in teachers the kind of knowledge which will enable them to modify their own teaching so that students understand mathematics in a more meaningful way. But these authors also note that there is little agreement and even less evidence pointing to what specific knowledge is actually needed by teachers… Continue Reading

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Eric.ed.gov – Kids Today: The Rise in Children’s Academic Skills at Kindergarten Entry

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Private and public investments in early childhood education have expanded significantly in recent years. Despite this heightened investment, we have little empirical evidence on whether children today enter school with different skills than they did in the late nineties. Using two large, nationally representative datasets, this paper documents how students entering kindergarten in 2010 compare to those who entered in 1998 in terms of their teacher-reported math, literacy and behavioral skills. Our results indicate that students in the more recent cohort entered kindergarten with stronger math and literacy skills. Results for behavioral outcomes were mixed. Increases in academic skills over this period were particularly pronounced among black children. Implications for policy are discussed. [This paper was published in “Educational Researcher” v46 n1 p7-20 2017 (EJ1132546).] Link til… Continue Reading

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Eric.ed.gov – Problem Solving: How Do In-Service Secondary School Teachers of Mathematics Make Sense of a Non-Routine Problem Context?

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: The concept of mathematical problem solving is an important mathematical process in mathematics curricula of education systems worldwide. These math curricula demand that learners are exposed to authentic problems that foster successful problem solving. To attain this very important goal, there must be mathematics teachers well versed in content and the pedagogy of problem solving. This study investigated problem solving process of in-service secondary school teachers in a non-routine problem context. Teachers? written responses were examined based on Polya?s problem solving theory to elucidate their disposition in relation to the problem context. Findings suggest that the in-service teachers exhibit (1) greater lack of understanding of the non-routine problem, (2) insufficient capacity to select appropriate heuristic strategies, and (3) total failure to reach the final “look back” stage.… Continue Reading

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Eric.ed.gov – Mathematical Modelling for Singapore Primary Classrooms: From a Teacher’s Lens

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Limited Singapore research indicated a lack of exposure of modelling tasks at primary levels. Teacher reflection is used as a tool in design research cycles exploring the potentials of modelling tasks in a Singapore primary five classroom. Findings reveal that the teacher identified three potentials of a modelling task on children’s mathematisation process: the task provided a platform for children to (a) identify variables and form relationships between them, (b) relate school-based math learning to real-world experiences, and (c) justify their mathematical models. Implications on the promotion of modelling tasks at primary schools as well as teacher education are drawn. Link til kilde

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Eric.ed.gov – Impact of Contextual Predictors on Value-Added Teacher Effectiveness Estimates

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: It is widely believed that the teacher is one of the most important factors influencing a student’s success at school. In many countries, teachers’ salaries and promotion prospects are determined by their students’ performance. Value-added models (VAMs) are increasingly used to measure teacher effectiveness to reward or penalize teachers. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student academic performance, controlling for other contextual factors, such as student and school characteristics. The data are based on 7543 Grade 8 students matched with 230 teachers from one province in Turkey. To test how much progress in student academic achievement can be attributed to a teacher, a series of regression analyses were run including contextual predictors at the student, school and teacher/classroom level.… Continue Reading

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Eric.ed.gov – Developing and Refining Lessons: Planning Learning and Formative Assessment for Math College and Career Ready Standards. From the College and Career Ready Standards to Teaching and Learning in the Classroom: A Series of Resources for Teachers

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This resource is part of a series produced by the Center for Standards and Assessment Implementation (CSAI) to assist teachers and those who support teachers to plan teaching and learning from College and Career Ready Standards (CCRS) for all students, including students with disabilities, English learners, academically at-risk students, students living in extreme poverty, and gifted/talented students. The series of resources addresses key shifts in learning and teaching represented in the CCRS. This resource uses the Common Core State Standards (CCSS; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) as an example of CCRS. The processes described in this resource are applicable to all States’ CCRS, including the CCSS. The content of this resource is drawn from leading theory and research… Continue Reading

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Eric.ed.gov – Building Blocks, Learning Goals, and Success Criteria: Planning Instruction and Formative Assessment for K-8 Math Standards. From the College and Career Ready Standards to Teaching and Learning in the Classroom: A Series of Resources for Teachers

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This resource is part of a series produced by the Center for Standards and Assessment Implementation (CSAI) to assist teachers and those who support teachers to plan teaching and learning from College and Career Ready Standards (CCRS) for all students, including students with disabilities, English learners, academically at-risk students, students living in extreme poverty, and gifted/talented students. The series of resources addresses key shifts in learning and teaching represented in the CCRS. This resource uses the Common Core State Standards (CCSS; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) as an example of CCRS. The processes described in this resource are applicable to all States’ CCRS, including the CCSS. The content of this resource is drawn from leading theory and research… Continue Reading

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Eric.ed.gov – A Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of Teachers’ Beliefs and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching on Students’ Mathematics Achievement

eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Teachers’ content knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning are among the key factors for effective teaching and, in turn, for student achievement-related outcomes. This study explores the extent to which K-8 math teachers’–who teach in high-poverty urban schools–professional background, motivational beliefs, and mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) have an impact on students’ math achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) results indicated that although students’ prior mathematics achievement was the most determining factor of their subsequent math achievement, teachers’ MKT and holding a bachelor’s degree in mathematics had significant positive effects on students’ math achievement. Results provide support for professional development (PD) to focus on improving mathematics teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching. Results may also have implications for education policies at both the district and state level for… Continue Reading