eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This study examined mathematical self-concept of college students and how it may develop differently between men and women. The study used data from a 1985 Cooperative Institutional Research Programs Survey and a follow-up survey in 1989 which included information from over 27,000 college freshmen and incorporates information acquired directly from institutions. The sample for the study was limited to 15,050 students attending 192 four-year colleges and universities. The data were analyzed in terms of characteristics at entry to college, intended choice of major, characteristics of the college environment, and college experiences. The dependent variable was students’ self-rating of their mathematical ability. Findings indicated that women are less confident than men about their mathematical abilities and that this disparity increases during the college years and is in large… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: The papers presented in this monograph address a number of concerns in developing a pedagogical approach for gifted and talented children. In the first paper, it is noted that routine intelligence tests cannot be relied upon to identify the gifted, and that a more stringent case study approach should be adopted to take into account the particular gifts and talents that students may have. In the second paper, educators are encouraged to recognize the inherently complex problem of developing a curriculum adapted to the unique cognitive styles of gifted children. The third paper explores the problem of math avoidance on the part of gifted girls. Research on a counseling program to meet the particular needs of gifted children is described in the fourth paper. The fifth paper… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is “Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice.” The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and ties in with the joint day of presentations with the 21st biennial conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT). This special feature highlights the benefits of collaboration between researchers, practicing classroom teachers, and curriculum developers. Volume 1 contains the following papers: (1) The Beginnings of MERGA (Ken Clements); (2) Teaching and Learning by Example: The Annual Clements/Foyster Lecture (Helen L. Chick); (3) Introducing Students to Data Representation and Statistics (Richard Lehrer); (4) Studies in the Zone… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: The high levels of anxiety, apprehension, and apathy of students in college algebra courses caused the instructor to create and test a variety of math teaching techniques designed to boost student confidence and enthusiasm in the subject. Overall, this proposal covers several different techniques, which have been evaluated by both students and the instructor. The paper proposes a series of study techniques, which are covered on the first day of class and throughout the course. Armed with practical advice about approaching the algebra course, the students learn by example. The instructor uses examples, such as rules of cricket matches as a way to make the material come to life. Other suggested techniques are making chapter notes available to students, and providing example tests before final exams and… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This article reports on a study that investigated the causes underlying a sample of eighteen third-year Australian pre-service primary teachers’ negative beliefs and anxiety about mathematics. It was found that most of the participants’ maths-anxiety could be attributed to their primary school experiences in learning mathematics. Situations such as teaching mathematics or being evaluated in mathematics were noted as particularly stressful and mathematical topics such as algebra, space and number sense were specifically identified to cause maths- anxiety. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about the implications of these findings for an ensuing program whose purpose is to help these pre-service teachers address their negative beliefs and anxieties about mathematics. [For complete proceedings, see ED489597.] Link til kilde

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This paper summarizes a formative evaluation of a developmental project designed to maximize the potential use of computers in mathematics instruction through the use of volunteers. The project was conducted using a 7th-grade class at an intermediate school in Utah. Data were analyzed for 12 students in a special class for students not having the necessary basic mathematics skills to enroll in a regular class. Students used math computer lab twice a week. The volunteers determined what mathematics skills each student needed to practice by referring to the student files, determined what software program would be appropriate for the student, and managed all the necessary student data. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed for: (1) achievement; (2) attitude about mathematics; (3) mathematics anxiety; (4) study habits;… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: Females’ underperformance in mathematics is discussed as a function of negative expectancies by parents, teachers, and peers. These negative expectancies of significant others lead to negative self-expectancies and negative attitudes about mathematics on the part of female students. These negative expectancies and attitudes lead to lower performance, reinforcing parents’ and teachers’ negative expectancies. Thus a cycle of low expectancies leading to low performance leading to even lower expectancies is perpetuated. Some reasons this cycle persists are: (1) girls, more than boys, tend to believe that mathematical ability is something individuals either have or do not have; (2) girls are more math anxious than boys; (3) girls may believe that “girls just cannot do math”; (4) girls’ belief that their ability is so low that no amount of… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: The Teacher Education and Mathematics project, funded by the Women’s Educational Equity Act, developed curriculum materials to increase mathematical knowledge and confidence, increase the perception of mathematics as a female domain, reduce math anxiety, and develop skills in identifying and counteracting sex bias in mathematics instruction. To develop effective materials, a formative evaluation was to document materials’ use at each stage of development, to assess student responses to materials, to collect judgment of external experts, and to collect reactions and suggestions of instructors who used the materials. Evaluation issues explored in this paper are: reliance on observer descriptions and participant ratings, effects on students and instructional staff of intensive observations, effects on students of frequent requests for feedback and evaluative reactions, and the extent to which professionals… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This Teacher Education and Mathematics (TEAM) content module focuses on approximation and estimation. It consists of: (1) an instructor’s text; (2) an instructor’s guide and solutions to student exercises; (3) student materials and exercises; and (4) student summary and review. The instructor’s text provides specific directions for guiding lessons and commentary on mathematics content and mathematics attitudes. This is accomplished by a “facing pages” format whereby the right-hand page provides step-by-step teaching directives while the left-hand page provides teaching insights, other options of instruction, and psychological or attitudinal strategies, when appropriate. The instructor’s text also contains content objectives, specified to indicate the scope and structure of the module, and student evaluation materials. The instructor’s guide and solutions to exercises provides teaching approaches and solutions to problems. Student… Continue Reading →

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eric.ed.gov har udgivet: This Teacher Education and Mathematics (TEAM) content module focuses on probability. It consists of: (1) an instructor’s text; (2) an instructor’s guide and solutions to student exercises; (3) student materials and exercises; and (4) student summary and review. The instructor’s text provides specific directions for guiding lessons and commentary on mathematics content and mathematics attitudes. This is accomplished by a “facing pages” format whereby the right-hand page provides step-by-step teaching directives while the left-hand page provides teaching insights, other options of instruction, and psychological or attitudinal strategies, when appropriate. The instructor’s text also contains content objectives, specified to indicate the scope and structure of the module, and student evaluation materials. The instructor’s guide and solutions to exercises provides approaches and solutions to problems. Student materials and exercises… Continue Reading →

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